​The Khanate of the Golden Horde - Section CA
The Khanate of the Golden Horde was founded by Jochi, the son of Chinggis Kan and it was filled with successors who ruled under Russian sovereity in the twentieth century. This Khanate emerged earlier than any other successor state as a separate entity and played a major role in the formation of the state and its ethno genesis of the Turkish people living in the inner Asian steppe. They also helped develop the modern Volga Tatar language and they prospered in their economy when ortoq merchants and some trade came over to the Qipchag steppe. Not too much is known of the formal court’s organization, but in 1269 khan Mengu-Temur had put together a great alliance consisting of the Golden Horde, Qaidu, and the Chaghatay Khanates. The Military was the largest of the three Western Khanates, but were not as “battle worthy” or as “well equipped” as the Chaghatay and the Il-Khanates. For example, during the Invasion of Azerbaijan in 1357, the army was described as, “horsemen without weapons.” This proves that it did not matter that there was so many of them because without the strength and the weapons they could not succeed as easily as you would probably think. The Golden Horde has left a legacy of literacy, money economy, and larger political ambitions that have been remembered even through the crisis of the fourteenth and fifteenth century.
Works Cited
Atwood, Christopher P. "Golden Horde." Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004.Ancient and Medieval History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE49&iPin=EME210&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 1, 2010).



The people of the Golden Horde wrote letters to Egypt throughout their relationship, entirely in Mongolian. Mongolian poetry was written on birch bark and square script fragments, which were unfortunately undated but probably from Toqto’a’s reign, testify to the continued use of Mongolian. However, by the 1380’s, if not before, the khans’ decrees were being written in Turkish. Nomadism also remained dominant in the Horde, up to its disintegration in the 15th century, when clan affiliations lasted far longer. For example, in Khorazm, the Qonggirad and Mangghud clans retained distinct identities into the 20th century. The discovery of yurts, which were tent like dwellings, in the courtyards of houses in the New Saray, show the continuing attachment to Nomadism among the Horde’s urban elite. Islam in the Golden Horde proceeded not “up from the conquered population, but “in” from abroad and then “down” from the Mongol elite. A later spread of Buddhism reflected the influence of Kelmish Khatun and Saljj’udai and the Yuan dynasty’s status. When Ozbeg came into power, he killed the emirs which were the heads of state in some Islamic countries, and Buddhist clerics who resisted Islamization, not necessarily to convert all the Mongols, but to ban any non-Muslim shared identity for them. The people of the Golden Horde were mostly a mixture of Turks and Mongols who adopted Islam. Most of the Horde’s population was Turkic: Kypchaks,Volga Tatars, Khwarezmians, etc. The Horde was gradually became more Turkish and lost its Mongol identity.
Works Cited
Atwood, Christopher P. "Golden Horde." Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004.Ancient and Medieval History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE49&iPin=EME210&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 1, 2010.

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December 14, 2008